Sung Ji Ahn, Josef Anrather, Nozomi Nishimura, Chris B. Schaffer
Cerebral microbleeds are linked to cognitive decline, but it remains unclear how they impair neuronal function. Infarction is not typically observed near microbleeds, suggesting more subtle mechanisms, such as inflammation, may play a role. Because of their small size and largely asymptomatic nature, real-time detection and study of spontaneous cerebral microbleeds in humans and animal models are difficult. We used in vivo 2-photon microscopy through a chronic cranial window in adult mice to follow the inflammatory response after a cortical microhemorrhage of ≈100 μm diameter, induced by rupturing a targeted cortical arteriole with a laser. The inflammatory response included the invasion of blood-borne leukocytes, the migration and proliferation of brain-resident microglia, and the activation of astrocytes. Nearly all inflammatory cells responding to the microhemorrhage were brain-resident microglia, but a small number of CX3CR1+ and CCR2+ macrophages, ultimately originating from the invasion of blood-borne monocytes, were also found near the lesion. We found a coordinated pattern of microglia migration and proliferation, where microglia within 200 μm of the microhemorrhage migrated toward the lesion over hours to days. In contrast, microglia proliferation was not observed until ≈40 hours after the lesion and occurred primarily in a shell-shaped region where the migration of microglia decreased their local density. These data suggest that local microglia density changes may trigger proliferation. Astrocytes activated in a similar region as microglia but delayed by a few days. By 2 weeks, this inflammatory response had largely resolved.Although microhemorrhages are small in size, the brain responds to a single bleed with an inflammatory response that involves brain-resident and blood-derived cells, persists for weeks, and may impact the adjacent brain microenvironment.
Jason S. Jones, David M. Small and Nozomi Nishimura
Frontiers in physiology (2018)
Background: Understanding the microscopic dynamics of the beating heart has been challenging due to the technical nature of imaging with micrometer resolution while the heart moves. The development of multiphoton microscopy has made in vivo, cell-resolved measurements of calcium dynamics and vascular function possible in motionless organs such as the brain. In heart, however, studies of in vivo interactions between cells and the native microenvironment are behind other organ systems. Our goal was to develop methods for intravital imaging of cardiac structural and calcium dynamics with microscopic resolution. Methods: Ventilated mice expressing GCaMP6f, a genetically encoded calcium indicator, received a thoracotomy to provide optical access to the heart. Vasculature was labeled with an injection of dextran-labeled dye. The heart was partially stabilized by a titanium probe with a glass window. Images were acquired at 30 frames per second with spontaneous heartbeat and continuously running, ventilated breathing. The data were reconstructed into three-dimensional volumes showing tissue structure, vasculature, and GCaMP6f signal in cardiomyocytes as a function of both the cardiac and respiratory cycle. Results: We demonstrated the capability to simultaneously measure calcium transients, vessel size, and tissue displacement in three dimensions with micrometer resolution. Reconstruction at various combinations of cardiac and respiratory phase enabled measurement of regional and single-cell cardiomyocyte calcium transients (GCaMP6f fluorescence). GCaMP6f fluorescence transients in individual, aberrantly firing cardiomyocytes were also quantified. Comparisons of calcium dynamics (risetime and tau) at varying positions within the ventricle wall showed no significant depth dependence. Conclusion: This method enables studies of coupling between contraction and excitation during physiological blood perfusion and breathing at high spatiotemporal resolution. These capabilities could lead to a new understanding of normal and disease function of cardiac cells.
Shivathmihai Nagappan, Lena Liu, Robert Fetcho, John Nguyen, Nozomi Nishimura, Ryan E. Radwanski, Seth Lieberman, Eliza Baird-Daniel, Hongtao Ma2,3, Mingrui Zhao, Chris B. Schaffer and Theodore H. Schwartz
Cerebral Cortex (2018)
Recent evidence shows that seizures propagate primarily through supragranular cortical layers. To selectively modify these circuits, we developed a new technique using tightly focused, femtosecond infrared laser pulses to make as small as ~100 µm-wide subsurface cortical incisions surrounding an epileptic focus. We use this “laser scalpel” to produce subsurface cortical incisions selectively to supragranular layers surrounding an epileptic focus in an acute rodent seizure model. Compared with sham animals, these microtransections completely blocked seizure initiation and propagation in 1/3 of all animals. In the remaining animals, seizure frequency was reduced by 2/3 and seizure propagation reduced by 1/3. In those seizures that still propagated, it was delayed and reduced in amplitude. When the recording electrode was inside the partially isolated cube and the seizure focus was on the outside, the results were even more striking. In spite of these microtransections, somatosensory responses to tail stimulation were maintained but with reduced amplitude. Our data show that just a single enclosing wall of laser cuts limited to supragranular layers led to a significant reduction in seizure initiation and propagation with preserved cortical function. Modification of this concept may be a useful treatment for human epilepsy.
Jiahn Choi, Nikolai Rakhilin, Poornima Gadamsetty, Daniel J. Joe, Tahmineh Tabrizian, Steven M. Lipkin, Derek M. Hu man, Xiling Shen & Nozomi Nishimura
Scientific Reports (2018)
Despite the continuous renewal and turnover of the small intestinal epithelium, the intestinal crypt maintains a ‘soccer ball-like’, alternating pattern of stem and Paneth cells at the base of the crypt. To study the robustness of the alternating pattern, we used intravital two-photon microscopy in mice with uorescently-labeled Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells and precisely perturbed the mosaic pattern with femtosecond laser ablation. Ablation of one to three cells initiated rapid motion of crypt cells that restored the alternation in the pattern within about two hours with only the rearrangement of pre-existing cells, without any cell division. Crypt cells then performed a coordinated dilation of the crypt lumen, which resulted in peristalsis-like motion that forced damaged cells out of the crypt. Crypt cell motion was reduced with inhibition of the ROCK pathway and attenuated with old age, and both resulted in incomplete pattern recovery. This suggests that in addition to proliferation and self-renewal, motility of stem cells is critical for maintaining homeostasis. Reduction of this newly-identi ed behavior of stem cells could contribute to disease and age-related changes.
David M. Small, Jason S. Jones, Irwin I. Tendler, Paul E. Miller, Andre Ghetti, and Nozomi Nishimura
Biomedical Optics Express (2018)
Multiphoton microscopy using laser sources in the mid-infrared range (MIR, 1,300 nm and 1,700 nm) was used to image atherosclerotic plaques from murine and human samples. Third harmonic generation (THG) from atherosclerotic plaques revealed morphological details of cellular and extracellular lipid deposits. Simultaneous nonlinear optical signals from the same laser source, including second harmonic generation and endogenous fluorescence, resulted in label-free images of various layers within the diseased vessel wall. The THG signal adds an endogenous contrast mechanism with a practical degree of specificity for atherosclerotic plaques that complements current nonlinear optical methods for the investigation of cardiovascular disease. Our use of whole-mount tissue and backward scattered epi-detection suggests THG could potentially be used in the future as a clinical tool.
Tejapratap Bollu, Nathan R Cornelius, John Sunwoo, Nozomi Nishimura, Chris B Schaffer and Peter C Doerschuk
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (2017)
Computations are described which estimate flows in all branches of the cortical surface arteriole network from two-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF) microscopy images which provide the network topology and, in selected branches red blood cell (RBC) speeds and lumen diameters. Validation is done by comparing the flow predicted by the model with experimentally measured flows and by comparing the predicted flow redistribution in the network due to single-vessel strokes with experimental observations. The model predicts that tissue is protected from RBC flow decreases caused by multiple occlusions of surface arterioles but not penetrating arterioles. The model can also be used to study flow rerouting due to vessel dilations and constrictions.
Ouzounov DG, Wang T, Wang M, Feng D, Horton NG, Cruz Hernández JC, Cheng Y, Reimer J, Tolias A, Nishimura N, Xu C
Nature Methods (2017)
High-resolution optical imaging is critical to understanding brain function. We demonstrate that three-photon microscopy at 1,300-nm excitation enables functional imaging of GCaMP6s-labeled neurons beyond the depth limit of two-photon microscopy. We record spontaneous activity from up to 150 neurons in the hippocampal stratum pyramidale at ~1-mm depth within an intact mouse brain. Our method creates opportunities for noninvasive recording of neuronal activity with high spatial and temporal resolution deep within scattering brain tissues.
Sefik Evren Erdener, Jianbo Tang, Amir Sajjadi, Kıvılcım Kılıc, Sreekanth Kura, Chris B Schaffer and David A Boas
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (2017)
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows label-free imaging of red blood cell (RBC) flux within capillaries with high spatio-temporal resolution. In this study, we utilized time-series OCT-angiography to demonstrate interruptions in capillary. RBC flux in mouse brain in vivo. We noticed 7.5% of 200 capillaries had at least one stall in awake mice with chronic windows during a 9-min recording. At any instant, 0.45% of capillaries were stalled. Average stall duration was 15 s but could last over 1 min. Stalls were more frequent and longer lasting in acute window preparations. Further, isoflurane anesthesia in chronic preparations caused an increase in the number of stalls. In repeated imaging, the same segments had a tendency to stall again over a period of one month. In awake animals, functional stimulation decreased the observance of stalling events. Stalling segments were located distally, away from the first couple of arteriolar-side capillary branches and their average RBC and plasma velocities were lower than nonstalling capillaries within the same region. This first systematic analysis of capillary RBC stalls in the brain, enabled by rapid and continuous volumetric imaging of capillaries with OCTangiography, will lead to future investigations of the potential role of stalling events in cerebral pathologies. Ke
M. Koyama, F. Minale, J. Shum, N. Nishimura, C. B. Schaffer, and J. R. Fetcho
Animals collect sensory information from the world and make adaptive choices about how to respond to it. Here, we reveal a network motif in the brain for one of the most fundamental behavioral choices made by bilaterally symmetric animals: whether to respond to a sensory stimulus by moving to the left or to the right. We define network connectivity in the hindbrain important for the lateralized escape behavior of zebrafish and then test the role of neurons by using laser ablations and behavioral studies. Key inhibitory neurons in the circuit lie in a column of morphologically similar cells that is one of a series of such columns that form a developmental and functional ground plan for building hindbrain networks. Repetition within the columns of the network motif we defined may therefore lie at the foundation of other lateralized behavioral choices.
G. D. Calvey, A. M. Katz, C. B. Schaffer, and L. Pollack,
Structural dynamics (2016)
Knowledge of protein structure provides essential insight into function, enhancing our understanding of diseases and enabling new treatment development. X-ray crystallography has been used to solve the structures of more than 100 000 proteins; however, the vast majority represent long-lived states that do not capture the functional motions of these molecular machines. Reactions triggered by the addition of a ligand can be the most challenging to detect with crystallography because of the difficulty of synchronizing reactions to create detectable quantities of transient states. The development of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) and serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) enables new approaches for solving protein structures following the rapid diffusion of ligands into micron sized protein crystals. Conformational changes occurring on millisecond timescales can be detected and time-resolved. Here, we describe a new XFEL injector which incorporates a microfluidic mixer to rapidly combine reactant and sample milliseconds before the sample reaches the X-ray beam. The mixing injector consists of bonded, concentric glass capillaries. The fabrication process, employing custom laser cut centering spacers and UV curable epoxy, ensures precise alignment of capillaries for repeatable, centered sample flow and dependable mixing. Crystal delivery capillaries are 50 or 75 μm in diameter and can contain an integrated filter depending on the demands of the experiment. Reaction times can be varied from submillisecond to several hundred milliseconds. The injector features rapid and uniform mixing, low sample dilution, and high hit rates. It is fully compatible with existing SFX beamlines.