Sandy Chan, Morgan Brophy, Nozomi Nishimura, Chris B. Schaffer
PLoS ONE (2019)
Microhemorrhages are common in the aging brain and are thought to contribute to cognitive decline and the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Chronic aspirin therapy is widespread in older individuals and decreases the risk of coronary artery occlusions and stroke. There remains a concern that such aspirin usage may prolong bleeding after a vessel rupture in the brain, leading to larger bleeds that cause more damage to the surrounding tissue. Here, we aimed to understand the influence of aspirin usage on the size of cortical microhemorrhages and explored the impact of age. We used femtosecond laser ablation to rupture arterioles in the cortex of both young (2–5 months old) and aged (18–29 months old) mice dosed on aspirin in their drinking water and measured the extent of penetration of both red blood cells and blood plasma into the surrounding tissue. We found no difference in microhemorrhage size for both young and aged mice dosed on aspirin, as compared to controls (hematoma diameter = 104 +/- 39 (97 +/- 38) μm in controls and 109 +/- 25 (101 +/- 28) μm in aspirin-treated young (aged) mice; mean +/- SD). In contrast, young mice treated with intravenous heparin had an increased hematoma diameter of 136 +/- 44 μm. These data suggest that aspirin does not increase the size of microhemorrhages, supporting the safety of aspirin usage.
Mohammad Haft-Javaherian, Linjing Fang, Victorine Muse, Chris B. Schaffer, Nozomi Nishimura, Mert R. Sabuncu
PLoS ONE (2019)
The health and function of tissue rely on its vasculature network to provide reliable blood perfusion. Volumetric imaging approaches, such as multiphoton microscopy, are able to generate detailed 3D images of blood vessels that could contribute to our understanding of the role of vascular structure in normal physiology and in disease mechanisms. The segmentation of vessels, a core image analysis problem, is a bottleneck that has prevented the systematic comparison of 3D vascular architecture across experimental populations. We explored the use of convolutional neural networks to segment 3D vessels within volumetric in vivo images acquired by multiphoton microscopy. We evaluated different network architectures and machine learning techniques in the context of this segmentation problem. We show that our optimized convolutional neural network architecture with a customized loss function, which we call DeepVess, yielded a segmentation accuracy that was better than state-of-the-art methods, while also being orders of magnitude faster than the manual annotation. To explore the effects of aging and Alzheimer’s disease on capillaries, we applied DeepVess to 3D images of cortical blood vessels in young and old mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease and wild type littermates. We found little difference in the distribution of capillary diameter or tortuosity between these groups, but did note a decrease in the number of longer capillary segments (>75μm) in aged animals as compared to young, in both wild type and Alzheimer’s disease mouse models.
Jean C. Cruz Hernández, Oliver Bracko, Calvin J. Kersbergen , Victorine Muse , Mohammad Haft-Javaherian, Maxime Berg, Laibaik Park , Lindsay K. Vinarcsik, Iryna Ivasyk, Daniel A. Rivera, Yiming Kang, Marta Cortes-Canteli, Myriam Peyrounette, Vincent Doyeux, Amy Smith , Joan Zhou, Gabriel Otte, Jeffrey D. Beverly, Elizabeth Davenport, Yohan Davit, Charles P. Lin, Sidney Strickland, Costantino Iadecola , Sylvie Lorthois , Nozomi Nishimura , Chris B. Schaffer
Nature Neuroscience (2019)
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) reductions in Alzheimer’s disease patients and related mouse models have been recognized for decades, but the underlying mechanisms and resulting consequences for Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis remain poorly understood. In APP/PS1 and 5xFAD mice we found that an increased number of cortical capillaries had stalled blood flow as compared to in wild-type animals, largely due to neutrophils that had adhered in capillary segments and blocked blood flow. Administration of antibodies against the neutrophil marker Ly6G reduced the number of stalled capillaries, leading to both an immediate increase in CBF and rapidly improved performance in spatial and working memory tasks. This study identified a previously uncharacterized cellular mechanism that explains the majority of the CBF reduction seen in two mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease and demonstrated that improving CBF rapidly enhanced short-term memory function. Restoring cerebral perfusion by preventing neutrophil adhesion may provide a strategy for improving cognition in Alzheimer’s disease patients
Yu-Ting Cheng, Kawasi M.Lett, Chris B.Schaffer
Experimental Neurobiology (2019)
n vivo optical imaging has enabled detailed studies of cellular dynamics in the brain of rodents in both healthy and diseased states. Such studies were made possible by three advances: surgical preparations that give optical access to the brain; strategies for in vivo labeling of cells with structural and functional fluorescent indicators; and optical imaging techniques that are relatively insensitive to light scattering by tissue. In vivo imaging in the rodent spinal cord has lagged behind than that in the brain, largely due to the anatomy around the spinal cord that complicates the surgical preparation, and to the strong optical scattering of the dorsal white matter that limits the ability to image deep into the spinal cord. Here, we review recent advances in surgical methods, labeling strategies, and optical tools that have enabled in vivo, high-resolution imaging of the dynamic behaviors of cells in the spinal cord in mice. Surgical preparations that enable long-term optical access and robust stabilization of the spinal cord are now available. Labeling strategies that have been used in the spinal cord tend to follow those that have been used in the brain, and some recent advances in genetically-encoded labeling strategies remain to be capitalized on. The optical imaging methods used to date, including two photon excited fluorescence microscopy, are largely limited to imaging the superficial layers of the spinal cord by the optical scattering of the white matter. Finally, we show preliminary data that points to the use of higher-order nonlinear optical processes, such as three photon excited fluorescence, as a means to image deeper into the mouse spinal cord.
Kenzo Koizumi, Yorito Hattori, Sung Ji Ahn, Izaskun Buendia, Antonio Ciacciarelli, Ken Uekawa, Gang Wang, Abigail Hiller, Lingzhi Zhao, Henning U. Voss, Steven M. Paul, Chris Schaffer, Laibaik Park & Costantino Iadecola
Nature Communications (2018)
The ApoE4 allele is associated with increased risk of small vessel disease, which is a cause of vascular cognitive impairment. Here, we report that mice with targeted replacement (TR) of the ApoE gene with human ApoE4 have reduced neocortical cerebral blood flow compared to ApoE3-TR mice, an effect due to reduced vascular density rather than slowing of microvascular red blood cell flow. Furthermore, homeostatic mechanisms matching local delivery of blood flow to brain activity are impaired in ApoE4-TR mice. In a model of cerebral hypoperfusion, these cerebrovascular alterations exacerbate damage to the white matter of the corpus callosum and worsen cognitive dysfunction. Using 3-photon microscopy we found that the increased white matter damage is linked to an enhanced reduction of microvascular flow resulting in local hypoxia. Such alterations may be responsible for the increased susceptibility to hypoxic-ischemic lesions in the subcortical white matter of individuals carrying the ApoE4 allele.
Sung Ji Ahn, Josef Anrather, Nozomi Nishimura, Chris B. Schaffer
Cerebral microbleeds are linked to cognitive decline, but it remains unclear how they impair neuronal function. Infarction is not typically observed near microbleeds, suggesting more subtle mechanisms, such as inflammation, may play a role. Because of their small size and largely asymptomatic nature, real-time detection and study of spontaneous cerebral microbleeds in humans and animal models are difficult. We used in vivo 2-photon microscopy through a chronic cranial window in adult mice to follow the inflammatory response after a cortical microhemorrhage of ≈100 μm diameter, induced by rupturing a targeted cortical arteriole with a laser. The inflammatory response included the invasion of blood-borne leukocytes, the migration and proliferation of brain-resident microglia, and the activation of astrocytes. Nearly all inflammatory cells responding to the microhemorrhage were brain-resident microglia, but a small number of CX3CR1+ and CCR2+ macrophages, ultimately originating from the invasion of blood-borne monocytes, were also found near the lesion. We found a coordinated pattern of microglia migration and proliferation, where microglia within 200 μm of the microhemorrhage migrated toward the lesion over hours to days. In contrast, microglia proliferation was not observed until ≈40 hours after the lesion and occurred primarily in a shell-shaped region where the migration of microglia decreased their local density. These data suggest that local microglia density changes may trigger proliferation. Astrocytes activated in a similar region as microglia but delayed by a few days. By 2 weeks, this inflammatory response had largely resolved.Although microhemorrhages are small in size, the brain responds to a single bleed with an inflammatory response that involves brain-resident and blood-derived cells, persists for weeks, and may impact the adjacent brain microenvironment.
Jason S. Jones, David M. Small and Nozomi Nishimura
Frontiers in physiology (2018)
Background: Understanding the microscopic dynamics of the beating heart has been challenging due to the technical nature of imaging with micrometer resolution while the heart moves. The development of multiphoton microscopy has made in vivo, cell-resolved measurements of calcium dynamics and vascular function possible in motionless organs such as the brain. In heart, however, studies of in vivo interactions between cells and the native microenvironment are behind other organ systems. Our goal was to develop methods for intravital imaging of cardiac structural and calcium dynamics with microscopic resolution. Methods: Ventilated mice expressing GCaMP6f, a genetically encoded calcium indicator, received a thoracotomy to provide optical access to the heart. Vasculature was labeled with an injection of dextran-labeled dye. The heart was partially stabilized by a titanium probe with a glass window. Images were acquired at 30 frames per second with spontaneous heartbeat and continuously running, ventilated breathing. The data were reconstructed into three-dimensional volumes showing tissue structure, vasculature, and GCaMP6f signal in cardiomyocytes as a function of both the cardiac and respiratory cycle. Results: We demonstrated the capability to simultaneously measure calcium transients, vessel size, and tissue displacement in three dimensions with micrometer resolution. Reconstruction at various combinations of cardiac and respiratory phase enabled measurement of regional and single-cell cardiomyocyte calcium transients (GCaMP6f fluorescence). GCaMP6f fluorescence transients in individual, aberrantly firing cardiomyocytes were also quantified. Comparisons of calcium dynamics (risetime and tau) at varying positions within the ventricle wall showed no significant depth dependence. Conclusion: This method enables studies of coupling between contraction and excitation during physiological blood perfusion and breathing at high spatiotemporal resolution. These capabilities could lead to a new understanding of normal and disease function of cardiac cells.
Shivathmihai Nagappan, Lena Liu, Robert Fetcho, John Nguyen, Nozomi Nishimura, Ryan E. Radwanski, Seth Lieberman, Eliza Baird-Daniel, Hongtao Ma2,3, Mingrui Zhao, Chris B. Schaffer and Theodore H. Schwartz
Cerebral Cortex (2018)
Recent evidence shows that seizures propagate primarily through supragranular cortical layers. To selectively modify these circuits, we developed a new technique using tightly focused, femtosecond infrared laser pulses to make as small as ~100 µm-wide subsurface cortical incisions surrounding an epileptic focus. We use this “laser scalpel” to produce subsurface cortical incisions selectively to supragranular layers surrounding an epileptic focus in an acute rodent seizure model. Compared with sham animals, these microtransections completely blocked seizure initiation and propagation in 1/3 of all animals. In the remaining animals, seizure frequency was reduced by 2/3 and seizure propagation reduced by 1/3. In those seizures that still propagated, it was delayed and reduced in amplitude. When the recording electrode was inside the partially isolated cube and the seizure focus was on the outside, the results were even more striking. In spite of these microtransections, somatosensory responses to tail stimulation were maintained but with reduced amplitude. Our data show that just a single enclosing wall of laser cuts limited to supragranular layers led to a significant reduction in seizure initiation and propagation with preserved cortical function. Modification of this concept may be a useful treatment for human epilepsy.
Jiahn Choi, Nikolai Rakhilin, Poornima Gadamsetty, Daniel J. Joe, Tahmineh Tabrizian, Steven M. Lipkin, Derek M. Hu man, Xiling Shen & Nozomi Nishimura
Scientific Reports (2018)
Despite the continuous renewal and turnover of the small intestinal epithelium, the intestinal crypt maintains a ‘soccer ball-like’, alternating pattern of stem and Paneth cells at the base of the crypt. To study the robustness of the alternating pattern, we used intravital two-photon microscopy in mice with uorescently-labeled Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells and precisely perturbed the mosaic pattern with femtosecond laser ablation. Ablation of one to three cells initiated rapid motion of crypt cells that restored the alternation in the pattern within about two hours with only the rearrangement of pre-existing cells, without any cell division. Crypt cells then performed a coordinated dilation of the crypt lumen, which resulted in peristalsis-like motion that forced damaged cells out of the crypt. Crypt cell motion was reduced with inhibition of the ROCK pathway and attenuated with old age, and both resulted in incomplete pattern recovery. This suggests that in addition to proliferation and self-renewal, motility of stem cells is critical for maintaining homeostasis. Reduction of this newly-identi ed behavior of stem cells could contribute to disease and age-related changes.
David M. Small, Jason S. Jones, Irwin I. Tendler, Paul E. Miller, Andre Ghetti, and Nozomi Nishimura
Biomedical Optics Express (2018)
Multiphoton microscopy using laser sources in the mid-infrared range (MIR, 1,300 nm and 1,700 nm) was used to image atherosclerotic plaques from murine and human samples. Third harmonic generation (THG) from atherosclerotic plaques revealed morphological details of cellular and extracellular lipid deposits. Simultaneous nonlinear optical signals from the same laser source, including second harmonic generation and endogenous fluorescence, resulted in label-free images of various layers within the diseased vessel wall. The THG signal adds an endogenous contrast mechanism with a practical degree of specificity for atherosclerotic plaques that complements current nonlinear optical methods for the investigation of cardiovascular disease. Our use of whole-mount tissue and backward scattered epi-detection suggests THG could potentially be used in the future as a clinical tool.