G. Omar Clay, Chris B. Schaffer, and David Kleinfeld
Journal of Chemical Physics (2007)
Porphyrin molecules have a highly conjugated cyclic structure and are theorized to have unusually large two-photon absorptivities (σTPA), i.e., σTPA ~ 10^2 GM. The authors tested this claim. Ultrafast two-photon absorption (TPA) spectroscopy was performed on solutions of hemoglobin, which contains a naturally occurring metaloporphyrin. They used a pump-probe technique to directly detect the change in transmission induced by TPA over the wavelength range of λ0=780–880 nm. As controls, they measured the TPA of the dyes rhodamine 6G and B; their measurements both verify and extend previously reported values. In new results, hemoglobin was found to have a peak two-photon absorptivity of σTPA~150 GM at λ0=825 nm, near a resonance of the Soret band. This value supports theoretical expectations. They also found a significant difference in the TPA of carboxyhemoglobin versus oxyhemoglobin, e.g., σTPA=61 GM versus σTPA=18 GM, respectively, at λ0=850 nm, which shows that the ligand affects the electronic states involved in TPA.
Nozomi Nishimura, Chris B. Schaffer, Beth Friedman, Patrick D. Lyden, and David Kleinfeld
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2007)
Penetrating arterioles bridge the mesh of communicating arterioles on the surface of cortex with the subsurface microvascular bed that feeds the underlying neural tissue. We tested the conjecture that penetrating arterioles, which are positioned to regulate the delivery of blood, are loci of severe ischemia in the event of occlusion. Focal photothrombosis was used to occlude single penetrating arterioles in rat parietal cortex, and the resultant changes in flow of red blood cells were measured with two-photon laser-scanning microscopy in individual subsurface microvessels that surround the occlusion. We observed that the average flow of red blood cells nearly stalls adjacent to the occlusion and remains within 30% of its baseline value in vessels as far as 10 branch points downstream from the occlusion. Preservation of average flow emerges 350 µm away; this length scale is consistent with the spatial distribution of penetrating arterioles. We conclude that penetrating arterioles are a bottleneck in the supply of blood to neocortex, at least to superficial layers.
Christopher J. Hensley , Daniel H. Broaddus, Chris B. Schaffer, and Alexander L. Gaeta
Optics Express (2007)
Femtosecond laser drilling is used to produce a variable-pressure ﬁber gas cell. Tightly focused laser pulses are used to produce micrometer-diameter radial channels in a hollow-core photonic band-gap ﬁber (HC-PBGF), and through these microchannels the core of the ﬁber is ﬁlled with a gas. The ﬁber cell is formed by fusion splicing and sealing the ends of the HC-PBGF to standard step-index ﬁber. As a demonstration, acetylene is introduced into an evacuated ﬁber at multiple backing pressures and spectra are measured.
28. Devor A, Tian P, Nishimura N, Teng IC, Hillman EM, Narayanan SN, Ulbert I, Boas DA, Kleinfeld D, Dale AM.
Journal of Neuroscience (2007)
Synaptic transmission initiates a cascade of signal transduction events that couple neuronal activity to local changes in blood flow and oxygenation. Although a number of vasoactive molecules and specific cell types have been implicated, the transformation of stimulus-induced activation of neuronal circuits to hemodynamic changes is still unclear. We use somatosensory stimulation and a suite of in vivo imaging tools to study neurovascular coupling in rat primary somatosensory cortex. Our stimulus evoked a central region of net neuronal depolarization surrounded by net hyperpolarization. Hemodynamic measurements revealed that predominant depolarization corresponded to an increase in oxygenation, whereas predominant hyperpolarization corresponded to a decrease in oxygenation. On the microscopic level of single surface arterioles, the response was composed of a combination of dilatory and constrictive phases. Critically, the relative strength of vasoconstriction covaried with the relative strength of oxygenation decrease and neuronal hyperpolarization. These results suggest that a neuronal inhibition and concurrent arteriolar vasoconstriction correspond to a decrease in blood oxygenation, which would be consistent with a negative blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging signal.