Nozomi Nishimura*, Nathanael L Rosidi*, Costantino Iadecola and Chris B Schaffer
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (2010)
Occlusions of penetrating arterioles, which plunge into cortex and feed capillary beds, cause severe decreases in blood flow and are potential causes of ischemic microlesions. However, surrounding arterioles and capillary beds remain flowing and might provide collateral flow around the occlusion. We used femtosecond laser ablation to trigger clotting in single penetrating arterioles in rat cortex and two-photon microscopy to measure changes in microvessel diameter and red blood cell speed after the clot. We found that after occlusion of a single penetrating arteriole, nearby penetrating and surface arterioles did not dilate, suggesting that alternate blood flow routes are not actively recruited. In contrast, capillaries showed two types of reactions. Capillaries directly downstream from the occluded arteriole dilated after the clot, but other capillaries in the same vicinity did not dilate. This heterogeneity in capillary response suggests that signals for vasodilation are vascular rather than parenchymal in origin. Although both neighboring arterioles and capillaries dilated in response to topically applied acetylcholine after the occlusion, the flow in the territory of the occluded arteriole did not improve. Collateral flow from neighboring penetrating arterioles is neither actively recruited nor effective in improving blood flow after the occlusion of a single penetrating arteriole.
Huseyin C. Yalcin, Akshay Shekhar, Nozomi Nishimura, Ajinkya A. Rane, Chris B. Schaffer, and Jonathan T. Butcher
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol (2010)
Embryonic heart formation is driven by complex feedback between genetic and hemodynamic stimuli. Clinical congenital heart defects (CHD), however, often manifest as localized microtissue malformations with no underlying genetic mutation, suggesting that altered hemodynamics during embryonic development may play a role. An investigation of this relationship has been impaired by a lack of experimental tools that can create locally targeted cardiac perturbations. Here we have developed noninvasive optical techniques that can modulate avian cardiogenesis to dissect relationships between alterations in mechanical signaling and CHD. We used two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy to monitor cushion and ventricular dynamics and femtosecond pulsed laser photoablation to target micrometer-sized volumes inside the beating chick hearts. We selectively photoablated a small (100 m radius) region of the superior atrioventricular (AV) cushion in Hamburger- Hamilton 24 chick embryos. We quantified via ultrasound that the disruption causes AV regurgitation, which resulted in a venous pooling of blood and severe arterial constriction. At 48 h postablation, quantitative X-ray microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated stunted ventricular growth and pronounced left atrial dilation. A histological analysis demonstrated that the laser ablation produced defects localized to the superior AV cushion: a small quasispherical region of cushion tissue was completely obliterated, and the area adjacent to the myocardial wall was less cellularized. Both cushions and myocardium were significantly smaller than sham-operated controls. Our results highlight that two-photon excited fluorescence coupled with femtosecond pulsed laser photoablation should be considered a powerful tool for studying hemodynamic signaling in cardiac morphogenesis through the creation of localized microscale defects that may mimic clinical CHD
Demirhan Kobat, Michael E. Durst, Nozomi Nishimura, Angela W. Wong, Chris B. Schaffer, and Chris Xu
Optics Express (2009)
We compare the maximal two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPM) imaging depth achieved with 775-nm excitation to that achieved with 1280-nm excitation through in vivo and ex vivo TPM of fluorescently-labeled blood vessels in mouse brain. We achieved high contrast imaging of blood vessels at approximately twice the depth with 1280-nm excitation as with 775-nm excitation. An imaging depth of 1 mm can be achieved in in vivo imaging of adult mouse brains at 1280 nm with approximately 1-nJ pulse energy at the sample surface. Blood flow speed measurements at a depth of 900 µm are performed.
Conor P. Foley, Nozomi Nishimura, Keith B. Neeves, Chris B. Schaffer, and William L. Olbricht
Biomed Microdevices (2009)
Convection enhanced delivery (CED) can improve the spatial distribution of drugs delivered directly to the brain. In CED, drugs are infused locally into tissue through a needle or catheter inserted into brain parenchyma. Transport of the infused material is dominated by convection, which enhances drug penetration into tissue compared with diffusion mediated delivery. We have fabricated and characterized an implantable microfluidic device for chronic convection enhanced delivery protocols. The device consists of a flexible parylene-C microfluidic channel that is supported during its insertion into tissue by a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) scaffold. The scaffold is designed to enable tissue penetration and then erode over time, leaving only the flexible channel implanted in the tissue. The device was able to reproducibly inject fluid into neural tissue in acute experiments with final infusate distributions that closely approximate delivery from an ideal point source. This system shows promise as a tool for chronic CED protocols.
Nozomi Nishimura, Chris B. Schaffer, Beth Friedman, Patrick D. Lyden, and David Kleinfeld
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2007)
Penetrating arterioles bridge the mesh of communicating arterioles on the surface of cortex with the subsurface microvascular bed that feeds the underlying neural tissue. We tested the conjecture that penetrating arterioles, which are positioned to regulate the delivery of blood, are loci of severe ischemia in the event of occlusion. Focal photothrombosis was used to occlude single penetrating arterioles in rat parietal cortex, and the resultant changes in flow of red blood cells were measured with two-photon laser-scanning microscopy in individual subsurface microvessels that surround the occlusion. We observed that the average flow of red blood cells nearly stalls adjacent to the occlusion and remains within 30% of its baseline value in vessels as far as 10 branch points downstream from the occlusion. Preservation of average flow emerges 350 µm away; this length scale is consistent with the spatial distribution of penetrating arterioles. We conclude that penetrating arterioles are a bottleneck in the supply of blood to neocortex, at least to superficial layers.
Nozomi Nishimura, Chris Schaffer, Beth Friedman, Philbert Tsai, Patrick Lyden, and David Kleinfeld
SPIE Newsroom (2006)
Ultrashort laser pulses can be used to produce lesions in single blood vessels located in the cortex of live rats, thus enabling the study of microstrokes.
Nozomi Nishimura, Chris B. Schaffer, Beth Friedman, Philbert S. Tsai, Patrick D. Lyden, and David Kleinfeld
Nature Methods (2006)
We present a method to produce vascular disruptions within rat brain parenchyma that targets single microvessels. We used two-photon microscopy to image vascular architecture, to select a vessel for injury and to measure blood-flow dynamics. We irradiated the vessel with high-fluence, ultrashort laser pulses and achieved three forms of vascular insult. (i) Vessel rupture was induced at the highest optical energies; this provides a model for hemorrhage. (ii) Extravasation of blood components was induced near the lowest energies and was accompanied by maintained flow in the target vessel. (iii) An intravascular clot evolved when an extravasated vessel was further irradiated. Such clots dramatically impaired blood flow in downstream vessels, in which speeds dropped to as low as ~10% of baseline values. This demonstrates that a single blockage to a microvessel can lead to local cortical ischemia. Lastly, we show that hemodilution leads to a restoration of flow in secondary downstream vessels.
Chris B. Schaffer, Beth Friedman, Nozomi Nishimura, Lee F. Schroeder, Philbert S. Tsai, Ford F. Ebner, Patrick D. Lyden, and David Kleinfeld
Public Library of Science Biology (2006)
A highly interconnected network of arterioles overlies mammalian cortex to route blood to the cortical mantle. Here we test if this angioarchitecture can ensure that the supply of blood is redistributed after vascular occlusion. We use rodent parietal cortex as a model system and image the flow of red blood cells in individual microvessels. Changes in flow are quantified in response to photothrombotic occlusions to individual pial arterioles as well as to physical occlusions of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), the primary source of blood to this network. We observe that perfusion is rapidly reestablished at the first branch downstream from a photothrombotic occlusion through a reversal in flow in one vessel. More distal downstream arterioles also show reversals in flow. Further, occlusion of the MCA leads to reversals in flow through approximately half of the downstream but distant arterioles. Thus the cortical arteriolar network supports collateral flow that may mitigate the effects of vessel obstruction, as may occur secondary to neurovascular pathology.
Eli N. Glezer, Chris B. Schaffer, Nozomi Nishimura, and Eric Mazur
Optics Letters (1997)
We produce minimally disruptive breakdown in water by using tightly focused 100-fs laser pulses and demonstrate the potential use of this technique in microsurgery of the eye. Using time-resolved imaging and piezoelectric pressure detection, we measure the magnitude and speed of propagation of the pressure wave produced in the breakdown. Compared with breakdown with longer pulses, here there is a much lower energy threshold for breakdown of 0.2 mJ , a smaller shock zone diameter (11 mm for 1-mJ pulses), and consistent energy deposition.